Selection is inferred from the observation that, within a lake, fish with intermediate gill raker morphology exhibited slower growth than phenotypically extreme individuals. Our results are consistent with, but do not confirm, a role for sexual selection in stickleback speciation. The first is selection against migrants or “immigrant inviability” between locally-adapted populations (12, 13). Significant male-female isotope correlations remain after controlling for spatial variables. Stickleback consume a combination of benthic and limnetic invertebrates, focusing on the former in small lakes, the latter in large lakes. Here, individuals with left- and right-bending mouth are found in sympatry in approximately equal frequencies. This parameter space falls well within empirically justifiable values based on meta-analyses [31, 33]. (C) Phylogeny of Kitlg sequences from 4 freshwater and 1 marine population in the Pacific basin. Detailed studies of reproductive isolation and how it varies among populations can provide valuable insight into the mechanisms of speciation. Perspective: Models of speciation: What have we learned in 40 years? In a timespan that - in evolutionary terms - amounts to a blink of an eye, this species has undergone adaptive radiation: individuals ventured into new environments and adapted to the conditions there. In that setting, the bodies of individual humans placed in the transporter would disintegrate and then be reassembled at a future time and a distant location. The pattern suggests that formation and divergence of the apple race involved selection of preexisting genetic variation for pupal diapause traits located on inversions, although the presence of these traits in southern populations needs to be confirmed. The fitness of hybrids between divergently-adapted populations may also be affected by heterosis (hybrid vigor), especially in the F1 hybrids (28), and this has not been controlled in most field estimates of ecologically-based postzygotic isolation. Here we present evidence that stickleback also exhibit assortative mating by diet. We show that evolution under branching conditions selects for assortativeness and thus allows sexual populations to escape from fitness minima. Populations of sticklebacks that evolved under different ecological conditions show strong reproductive isolation, whereas populations that evolved … On the contrary, the freshwater and marine fish retain their numerous traits in terms of shape, physiology and behaviour, and also display distinct gene pools. Tracking the development of new model systems, Skepticism toward Santa Rosalia, or why are there so few kinds of animals, Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species, Allele substitution at a flower color locus produces a pollinator shift in monkeyflowers, Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in monkeyflowers (, Ecological speciation in sticklebacks: Environment-dependent hybrid fitness, A genetic interpretation of ecologically dependent isolation, A test of ecologically dependent postmating isolation between sympatric sticklebacks, Reproductive isolation as a pleiotropic effect of copper tolerance in, The genetic basis of intrinsic and extrinsic postzygotic reproductive isolation jointly promoting speciation in the lake whitefish species complex (, Incipient speciation by divergent adaptation and antagonistic epistasis in yeast, Two Dobzhansky-Muller genes interact to cause hybrid lethality in, Incompatibility of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes causes hybrid sterility between two yeast species, A mouse speciation gene encodes a meiotic histone H3 methyltransferase, The population genetics of adaptation: The distribution of factors fixed during adaptive evolution, Ecological divergence exhibits consistently positive associations with reproductive isolation across disparate taxa, Body size divergence promotes postzygotic reproductive isolation in centrarchids, Dynamics of hybrid incompatibility in gene networks in a constant environment, Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities and adaptation to a shared environment, Adaptation from standing genetic variation, Widespread parallel evolution in sticklebacks by repeated fixation of Ectodysplasin alleles, How species evolve collectively: Implications of gene flow and selection for the spread of advantageous alleles.
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