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which of the following is assessed by the paced auditory serial addition test?

Using the bottom quintile of training accuracy as a cutoff, 87% of malingerers with abnormal z-scores showed training performance within the normal range seen in Experiment 1a, versus 31% of the controls with abnormal z-scores (i.e., 87% sensitivity and 69% specificity). If you have an individual subscription to this content, or if you have purchased this content through Pay Per Article within the past 24 hours, you can gain access by logging in with your username and password here: This site uses cookies. (1997) found that the PASAT accurately differentiated between participants with closed head injuries and those in a control group; however, results indicated that the PASAT was insensitive to the severity of the concussion, as determined by LOC and PTA. For example, assuming an initial SOA of 2000 ms, in the sequence “hit (SOA = 2000 ms), dyad hit(SOA = 1900 ms), delayed dyad hit(SOA = 1995), dyad hit(SOA = 1796 ms),” the SOA would decrease by 5% ms after the second hit, increase by 5% after the third trial since no response was detected prior to the next trial, and decrease by 10% after the fourth trial when both the delayed hit on trial 3 and the correct response on trial 4 were detected. Although many studies suggest that a significant percentage of control subjects are unwilling or unable to complete the PASAT [12], most normative studies provide little information about the percentage of individuals who declined to participate, failed to complete training, or discontinued testing as SOAs were reduced [16, 17, 21]. Digits were presented binaurally through headphones at calibrated intensities of 80 dB SPL. Mean computer-use scores were 5.27 (1.97), i.e., subjects used computers for slightly more than 2 hours per day. Additional forms of the PASAT, which vary in length of the interstimulus interval and the number of trials, have been developed for use in research and clinical practice (Sherman et al., 1997; Potter and Barrett, 1999). The inability of the PASAT to identify a large percentage of those with head injuries in this sample may have been strongly influenced by this factor. In order to determine whether the mathematical ability to retrieve addition facts like those presented in the PASAT uniquely contributes to PASAT performance, the present study developed another experimental task to pinpoint this ability. Dreary et al. Arch. Overall, 10.2% of subjects underwent more than one 15-trial training block. These changes were accompanied by increases in the dyad ratio [F(2,86) = 27.20, p < 0.0001, ω2 = 0.38] and reductions in RTs [F(2,86) = 12.61, p < 0.0001, ω2 = 0.21]. Though the head-injured patients in the former group did not differ from controls on PASAT performance, the head-injured patients in the latter two groups did differ from controls. Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test: Adult Norms and Moderator Variables. The results were analyzed with ANOVA, with separate comparisons of mTBI and sTBI groups with the control subjects in Experiment 1a and Experiment 1b. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178148.g003. These observations prompted research into the assessment of impaired cognition following traumatic brain injury. UC Davis Department of Neurology, Sacramento, California, United States of America, Experiment 1 also confirmed previous studies showing that age and education significantly influence PASAT scores. We found no significant differences in minSOA z-scores, RTs, or dyad ratios between the two control populations tested by different examiners in different laboratories. (1) Orientation and training is extensive to assure that subjects fully understand the task; (2) Testing starts at longer SOAs (3.5 s) than those used in other versions of the PASAT (3.0 s or 2.4 s); (3) Digits one to five are used rather than the digits one to nine, simplifying calculations and reducing the influence of mathematical ability [56]; (4) Subjects are tested at SOAs where they perform successfully (70% correct). For these subjects, the mean SOA was 3.70 s; i.e., most of these subjects could not maintain performance at 70% correct at 3.50 s SOAs, and SOAs increased as a result. Neuropsychological assessment of individuals with mild traumatic brain injury. The present study hypothesizes that the existence of persistent post-concussive symptoms and type of injury (car-related versus not car-related) will influence PASAT performance. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. In 1977, Gronwall introduced the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) as a measure of the severity of closed head injuries as well as a scale of recovery following a traumatic brain injury. Strauss et al. Research shows that the dyad score in MS patients is more closely correlated with white matter lesions [27] and the MS clinical course [14] than the total-correct score. One possible explanation for the different conclusions drawn by these studies may lie in the method of IQ assessment. S1 Table includes minSOA z-scores from the individual TBI patients. Supervision, The minSOA z-scores are shown in Fig 3 for patients with mTBI (solid red circles) and sTBI (cross-hatched red circles). In addition, we observed large learning effects: minSOA z-scores declined by 0.77 across the three test sessions [F(2,86) = 37.04, p < 0.0001, ω2 = 0.46], with significant differences between Session 1 and Session 2 (p< 0.0001) and between Session 2 and Session 3 (p < 0.0003). They found that malingerers scored significantly below control subjects at 2.0 s SOAs, with differences reduced at 1.6 s SOAs, while the scores of TBI patients were intermediate between those of the control and simulated malingering groups. Finally, Experiment 4 demonstrated DA-PASAT sensitivity to TBI-related processing deficits that were similar to those seen in previous studies using the standard PASAT [8]. Holdwick, D.J., & Wingenfeld, S.A. (1999). The PASAT demands the ability to sustain attention to successfully gather and process appropriate information from the auditory tape for extended periods of time. This implies that uncontrolled differences in PASAT administration and/or scoring can influence scores. Effects of practice of paced performance. For example, 52% of simulated malingerers with abnormal scores had z-scores above 2.5 versus 25% of abnormal controls (52% sensitivity, 75% specificity). Investigation, If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. UC Davis Department of Neurology, Sacramento, California, United States of America, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178148.g005. (1997) also found that mathematical ability, gauged by the WAIS-R Arithmetic Subtest, contributed to performance on both the 1.6-second and two-second trials of the PASAT in a sample with a mean age of 32.7 years. Shaded cells show patients with severe TBI. Previous studies have found significant increases in PASAT total-correct scores with repeated testing [25, 70, 72], and reductions in the minSOA with the adjusting PASAT [30].

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